Customary or Traditional Adoption, Informal and Extra-Legal Care

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Includes non-Western types of adoption, excludes "unofficial" care by relatives.

Agbabi, Patience, Akabusi, Kriss, Amo, Anton Wilhelm, Argentinian Orphans of the Dirty War, Arthur, Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children, Baiul, Oksana, Basavis (under Devadasi), Bates, Daisy, Beley, Ennis, Bemo, John, Big Day, William, Bogams (under Devadasi), Bradford, William, Brown, Mick, Burke, Kathy, Burnum, Burnum, Caddell, James, Capitein, Jacobus, Captives, Carver, George Washington, Charbonneau, Jean Baptiste, Chinese Qing Dynasty, Chips, Horn, Clitus Niger, Cockenoe, Coolidge, Sherman, Crazy Horse, Cross, June, Cyrus the Great, Davidson, Tommy, Davis, John, de Rossi, Giovanni Battista, Devadasi, Eastman, Charles Alexander, Eliezer, Faka'osilea, Lorris, Finch, Peter, Fitzgerald, Ella, Fox, Ruth May, Gardiner, Wira, Garrison, William Lloyd, Gaveston, Piers, Geisha, God's Wife, Griffis, Joseph, Hannibal, Abram Petrovich, Harrison, Pakariki, Hawai'ian Royal Families, Hensley, Albert, Henson, Matthew Alexander, Hokusai, Honorific Adoption, Houston, Samuel, Hyde, Orson, India (Princely States), Iti, Tame, Jackson, Henry, Jameson, Derek, Janissaries, Jesus Christ, Jogatis (under Devadasi), Jones, Frederick McKinley, Joseph the Carpenter, Jumping Bull, Kano Sansetsu, Karna, Kean, Edmund, Kipling, J. Rudyard, Kiribati, Kishi Nobusuke, Kitt, Eartha, Krishna, Laurent, Robert, Lehmann, Henry, Lewis, Edmonia, Lone Wolf II, Lonewolf, Delos Knowles, Mabo, Edward Koiki, Mabon Mab Modron, Mahuta, Robert Te Kotahitanga a Koroki, Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla, Manus, Maretu II, Mariner, William, Maui, Mbeki, Thabo Mvuyelwa, Melville, Herman, Mihinui, Dorothy Huhana, Mo Keen, Loki, Monroe, Marilyn, Morgan, Tukoroirangi, Moses, Mountain Wolf Woman, Natis (under Devadasi), Native American and Alaskan Native Children, Nazi Germany, Norwegian Ruling Families, O'Connell, James F., Omahuru, Ngatau, Perrott, Caroline, Pitt River Charley, Pomare Dynasty, Poutapu, Wiremu Te Ranga, Poutu, Liana, Powell, Peter John, Pryderi, Radisson, Pierre-Esprit, Rat-Children of Shah Daula, Ratahi, Topsy Stewart, Ratana, Raniera Te Ao Hou, Ratana, Tahupotiki Wiremu, Restavecs, Roach, Archie, Roman Empire, Romulus and Remus, Sacagawea, Saigo Siro, Seal, Semiramis, Shabbona, Shenandoah, Simon, Ella, Sissay, Lemn, Slaves, Slocum, Frances, Sykes, Annette, Taare, Sonny, Tamaiti Whangai, Tangiia Nui, Te Ariki Upoko Tini, Te Waharoa, Te Wiata, Inia, Tekakwitha, Kateri, Thevardiyar (under Devadasi), Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista, Tolkien, J.R.R., Tonore, Airini, Trokosi, Tu Tapu, Valero, Helena, von Kleist, Heinrich, Whitbread, Fatima, William the Conqueror, Wright, Allen, Yoshida Shigeru, Ystumllyn, John, Zaid bin Haritha,

Agbabi, Patience

Agbabi was born in London to Nigerian parents but fostered from birth by a white family, while maintaining frequent contact with her birth family. She was brought up in Sussex and North Wal... [more]

Akabusi, Kriss

Akabusi was born an Igbo prince in Nigeria, but taken to England as a child, where he went into care when his mother returned to Nigeria. He spent time in a children's home and also had mul... [more]

Amo, Anton Wilhelm

Amo was born on the Gold Coast (Ghana) about 1703 and taken to Amsterdam when he was about four. He was given to the Duke of Wolfenbüttel and baptised Anton Wilhelm. He was educated with su... [more]

Argentinian Orphans of the Dirty War

Between 1976 and 1985 the military dictators of Argentina operated a policy of kidnapping, torturing, murdering and "disappearing" their political opponents. Children of their vic... [more]


King Arthur was born the son of Uther and Igerna, who was the wife of Gorlois, Duke of Cornwall. He was raised by Sir Ector in secret and became king on Uther's death, proving his right to ... [more]

Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

For several decades from the 1920s to the 1960s, the Australian government operated a deliberate policy of cultural genocide, taking young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children fro... [more]

Baiul, Oksana

Baiul was born in Dnepropetrovsk. Different sources give the year as 1977 or 1978 and the date as 26 February, 16 October and 16 and 26 November. Her surname is spelled Bayul or Baiul, acco... [more]

Basavis (under Devadasi)

Devadasi (mainly of Maharashtra and Karnataka states) and related practices ( Maharis in Kerala, Natis in Assam, Muralis in Maharashtra, Bogams in Andhra Pradesh, Jogatis and Basa... [more]

Bates, Daisy

Bates' mother was murdered by white racists when she was a baby. Her father left to look for her and never returned, so she was adopted by his best friend. She was the prime mover in the fam... [more]

Beley, Ennis

Beley was born the fourth child of an unmarried drug addict, Patricia Smith, in Los Angeles. From a few days old he was fostered by a 60-year-old single man, Howard Glen, who raised him as ... [more]

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