Crazy Horse

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ca. 1849-77

Also known as Curly and Tashunkewitko
Sioux (Native American) war chief

Crazy Horse was named Curly when he was born, to a Brule Sioux mother and a Lakota Sioux father. He was adopted as an adolescent by High Back Bone (or Hump), a great Oglala Sioux warrior, who taught him all he knew.

As an adult he was one of the greatest war leaders of those Sioux and Cheyenne who refused to be confined to the treaty reservations. In 1872 he was one of the leaders of the Oglala who annihilated the US Army forces under Colonel George Custer, but he was pursued and eventually surrendered at Red Cloud in 1877. A few months later he was killed while trying to escape.


Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia, 1993-97
Dictionary of American Biography
Eastman, Charles Alex. Indian Heroes and Great Chieftains. (Mineola: Dover, 197) (Dover Books on the American Indian)
Freedman, Russell. The Life and Death of Crazy Horse. (New York: Holiday House, 1996)
Sandoz, Mari. Crazy Horse: The Strange Man of the Oglalas. 50th Anniversary edition. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992) (A Bison Book)
Goldman, Martin S. Crazy Horse: War Chief of the Oglala Sioux. (New York: Franklin Watts, 1996) (The American Indian Experience)
"Crazy Horse - Tashunca-uitco (1849-1877)." Available at:
"History & Leaders of the Oglala Lakota Sioux: Part I." Available at:
"Crazy Horse (b. Tashunka Witco) ?1842-1877." Available at:


Native American and Alaskan Native, Inuit
19th Century
Military and Defense
Exile or Persecution (religious, Political or Social)
School-age Years, Adolescence
To Provide Heirs, As Protégés, etc.
Family Friends or Acquaintances
Priest, Religious, Teacher, Coach, Mentor, Patron, Apprentice Master or Owner
Wealthy, Famous, Noble or Divine Adoptive or Foster Families
Customary or Traditional Adoption, Informal and Extra-Legal Care
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