His pontificate was marked by the return of the Papal States to the direct control of the Vatican; a reform of papal finances; lavish patronage of the arts and architecture, including Michaelangelo's Pietŕ; the Bull of Demarcation, which divided the New World between Spain and Portugal; the sending of the first Christian missionaries to America; a crusade against the Muslims; and the execution of Girolamo Savonarola in 1498. He fathered at least four children, including the notorious Cesare and Lucrezia, and shamelessly used his holy office to further advance his family's interests.
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